However, the study involved no data collection or laboratory water quality analysis. In this study, the land use attributes were grouped into three major categories according to level I from Anderson classification scheme. Urban land includes residential built-up , industrial, commercial, and recreational areas; agricultural land comprises oil palm and rubber plantations, croplands, pastures, and other farming areas; and forest land involves logging area, mangrove area, and wetland.
On the other hand, water quality attributes were grouped into four types: physical, chemical, biological, and hydrological. These types of land use were not discussed in the findings due to the insignificance of literatures containing them. Field measurements and laboratory analyses are the main methods for generating water quality data of respective water bodies.
However, several studies, in addition to the data collected in the field, have used data generated by the Department of Environment DOE in Malaysia. The DOE sampling frequency is between four and six times a year. These techniques include multivariate statistics e. These techniques are commonly used for regulatory, monitoring, planning, and exploration purposes. However, the overall results of the papers analyzed in this study indicated that most researchers used modeling rather than monitoring techniques to determine the relationship between land use and water quality.
These results are in line with the finding of Abdulkareem et al.
Urban low-income housing and development. A case study in Peninsular Malaysia. Authors: Wegelin, E.A.. Free Preview. prethanddownmarrent.gq: Urban low-income housing and development: A case study in Peninsular Malaysia (Studies in Development and Planning) (): .
Furthermore, in establishing the relationship between land use and water quality, modeling techniques may have some advantages over other techniques due to their suitability in relating the phenomena. As such, statistical modeling may be preferable to physical-based modeling because of the need for a large number of input data associated with continuous observation data for the model building, calibration, and validation process Giri and Qiu The results clearly showed that land use activities have significant impacts on water quality Fig.
This is in part due to the rapid and continuous development that the country was experiencing over the last decades. Of the point and non-point source pollution, NPS pollution is a major concern because of its complex nature Giri and Qiu and includes agricultural and urban land use activities, deforestation, and other environmental problems.
These effects are generally studied by analyzing the relationships between land use and water quality indicators. The following sections discuss the correlation between each major land use category and the types of water quality indicators used in the different studies conducted in Malaysia over the years.
The clearing activities of land can lead to increased salinity problems in a catchment and the export of sediments and the decomposition of organic matter in streams which can lead to acidity problems in the catchment such as low pH, increased total acidity, and mobilization of dissolved heavy metals Fig. Stock control activities, such as feedlots, can result in increased organic matter in local streams, which have a similar effect on water quality like a wastewater treatment plant WADW As such, most researchers have focused on the effects of agricultural land use on water quality in addressing water quality issues in Malaysia.
The physical parameters identified in the various studies for this research include temperature, electrical conductivity EC , total suspended solids TSS , turbidity, and total dissolved solids TDS , and the chemical parameters include heavy metals, pH, biochemical oxygen demand BOD , chemical oxygen demand COD , dissolved oxygen DO , and nitrate. In addition, these water quality indicators have been the focus of most studies in Malaysia Fig. Water quality is affected by human interference related to urbanization, such as industrialization and the increase in housing development Fig.
In Malaysia, many researchers have studied the impact of urban land use on water quality over the last decade. As such, agricultural and urban land use factors have been the focus of most studies dealing with water quality in the country. The results of the papers analyzed in this study indicated that the main sources of water quality degradation in urban areas include various activities, such as residential, industrial, and commercial, as well as recreational activities Fig. Consequently, urban development has become a significant predictor of water quality changes in Malaysian rivers Fig.
For this reason, Azyana and Na concluded, after their study on the degradation of water quality in the Kinta River, that developed lands were found to be the best indicator for predicting water quality degradation. Nurhidayu et al.
The strong positive correlation between urban land use and hydrological parameters, as identified in this study, confirms the finding of previous studies indicating the cause-effect relationship between urban developments and changes in the hydrological regime. Without human intervention activities, natural forests would have no significant adverse impacts on water quality. In fact, these forests contribute to maintaining the quality of surface water in particular. As such, in their study, Nainar et al.
However, the results of many articles analyzed in this study indicated that forest areas are gradually decreasing in Malaysia, mainly due to the conversion actions to either agricultural or urban development activities. In addition, there was also a significant positive correlation between urban, agricultural, and forest areas on the one hand, and between physical and chemical indicators of water quality on the other hand.
Indeed, these variables were primarily responsible for understanding the effects of land use on water quality in Malaysia. However, many researchers suggested sustainable management of mangrove areas and logging activities in order to achieve sustainable development and a better understanding of effective water conservation and management.
Factors affecting water quality in developing countries are complex and their sources have been described in many literatures. However, most of these literatures have not touched on their processes, especially with regard to surface water pollution. Therefore, this research was needed to review and analyze the existing studies in order to provide a clear summary of the main sources of water pollution and to understand the processes involved. As a result of human activities, the effects of these land use factors on water quality have been understood through the processes linking them to the water quality indicators as described in the previous sections.
For example, urban land use activities have a greater impact on water quality by altering hydrological processes, and agricultural activities and forest degradation were strongly correlated with physical and chemical parameters of water quality. This understanding of the relationship between land use and water quality would facilitate the management not only of the main sources of water pollution, but also of the processes involved.
Model Earth Syst Environ — ARPN J. Sci — Ali MZ The application of the artificial neural network model for river water quality classification with emphasis on the impact of land use activities: a case study from several catchments in Malaysia. PhD thesis. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf — Anderson J A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data. Aust J Basic Appl Sci — Malaysian J Sci — Final report. Baker A Land use and water quality. Hydrol Process — Bartram J, Ballance R Water quality monitoring - a practical guide to the design and implementation of freshwater quality studies and monitoring programmes.
It is too horrible when we see the 10th Malaysia Plan is only talking about 78, affordable units when 5 Affordable Housing and Low Malaysia is facing more than 1,, people under the poverty line World Bank, Program Perumahan low-cost housing. The overall performance of Rakyat - PPR and low-medium-cost housing are houses built under the low-cost housing category apartment projects that the government has is encouraging, with , units completed or ordered to be constructed under the low- Out of this number, medium-cost housing plans in low- and high- , units or Out of houses, any mixed development projects this number, the private sectors constructed undertaken by private developers are required to 61, units of houses or This the total , low-cost housing units were achievement shows that the private developers constructed .
However, taking into account had responded remarkably well to the increasing the situational demand for low-cost houses as demands of houses in this category, thus, well as addressing the issue of unsold units, reducing the demand pressure for low-cost some state governments have made adjustments houses. The total number of medium- and high- to the policy. Under the Public Low Cost cost houses constructed by the private sectors Housing Programme PLHP for the low-income during the 8th Malaysia Plan has far exceeded its group, during the 9MP period, a total of 27, target, reflecting a continuous demand for low-cost houses were constructed under 70 houses in this category.
In this respect, a total projects. These projects were implemented by number of , units of medium-cost and the state governments through loans provided by , units of high-cost houses were the federal government. They mainly constructed. The public sectors constructed concentrated in small towns and sub-urban areas 30, medium-cost houses and 22, high- .
These houses were sold to eligible buyers cost houses, which met The Program were comprised of , dwellings. Under this programme, the quality of life by focusing on lower wages 37, low-cost houses were completed and and improving the gross domestic product rented out to those eligible. Out of this number GDP , as well as appropriating strategies for of units, 24, units were built in Wilayah environment and state resources. These efforts Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur, while 12, units are being supplemented and complemented by were constructed in other principal towns investments from the private sectors in the field throughout the country .
To accomplish the goal of than the renter in Malaysia . Smart Growth is a it is not entirely a successful plan. Malaysia still mechanism for improving the quality of life in needs high- range low-income houses, which large sized cities .
There are ten main need to be currently increased. Conservation of extendable for Malaysia .
Damme: Innovative approaches in educational pedagogy for earthen architecture. Literature review identifies the relevant research that appeared in the Art and Social Sciences Journal [ 10 ] articles on Urbanization and these included topics on well-being, employment, film, economics, religion, conflict, telecommunication, governance, community, education, agriculture, values, power, internet, conformity, infrastructure, dietary, health, water, energy, information system, suburb, tribe, empowerment, poverty, culture, civilization, globalisation and so forth. It is not possible to produce an accurate evaluation of the consequence of the NCIA operations in the area because of the scarcity of information and the apparent delay encompassed in the materialisation of the projected consequences of the investment projects. Liow TL. This unit of reduced land use.
The dense of public facilities and amenities, with sprawl living conditions are causing land price to rise development that contributes to the loss of due to the scarcity of available lands. In this support for public facilities and amenities. It increases societal costs income families have no alternatives but to pay for transportation and consumes more resources high rental to property owners . On the other than the vertical pattern. Sprawl separates the hand, the trend in low-cost housing indicates a poor urban people from their jobs, and imposes a mismatch between the supply and demand of tax on time.
One of the main important low-medium-cost housing in Malaysia. It also approaches for preparing housing lands in shows that private developers are not keened on Malaysia is demolishing forests and green building low-medium-cost housing due to low resources, which results in the degradation of profitability .
In addition, there is also the water and air quality. Furthermore, sprawl also fact that no temptation has been imposed, unlike results in the permanent alteration and the low-cost housing. Moreover, there are no destruction of habitats. It creates difficulties in specific incentives given to the private maintaining the communities. Sprawl offers the developers to help them build low-medium-cost promise of choices while only delivering more housing .
Especially, after the 9th Malaysia of the same . It saves values in various aspects 6 Smart Growth in Malaysia that allow planners to listen to other urban In Malaysia, for the first time, the National issues. What are incontestable in the basic Policy on Environment has been formulated to discussion of Smart Growth are commensurate ensure the long-term sustainability and houses, which must be affordable for all urban development in the quality of life . The people. It means that, the small steps in the term sustainability and improvement in the implementation of Smart Growth in Malaysia quality of life.