Include the volume and issue number for the periodical if this information is available. For some online periodicals, it may not be. Note that if the article appears in a print version of the publication, you do not need to list the URL, but do indicate that you accessed the electronic version. Robbins, K. Psychology Today, 43 2 , McNeil, D. Maternal health: A new study challenges benefits of vitamin A for women and babies.
The New York Times. Cite these articles as you would normally cite a print article. Provide database information only if the article is difficult to locate. APA style does not require writers to provide the item number or accession number for articles retrieved from databases.
You may choose to do so if the article is difficult to locate or the database is an obscure one. Check with your professor to see if this is something he or she would like you to include. Format these as you would an article citation, but add the word Abstract in brackets after the title. Bradley, U. Low-fat versus low-carbohydrate weight reduction diets: Effects on weight loss, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk: A randomized control trial [Abstract]. Diabetes , 58 12 , — The ways you cite different nonperiodical web documents may vary slightly from source to source, depending on the information that is available.
In your citation, include as much of the following information as you can:. If the document consists of more than one web page within the site, link to the homepage or the entry page for the document. American Heart Association. Heart attack, stroke, and cardiac arrest warning signs. Provide the URL for the specific entry. If you cite raw data compiled by an organization, such as statistical data, provide the URL where you retrieved the information.
Provide the name of the organization that sponsors the site.
US Food and Drug Administration. When citing graphic data—such as maps, pie charts, bar graphs, and so on—include the name of the organization that compiled the information, along with the publication date.
Briefly describe the contents in brackets. Provide the URL where you retrieved the information. If the graphic is associated with a specific project or document, list it after your bracketed description of the contents. List the interviewer, interviewee, and date. List the name of the website and the URL where you retrieved the information.
Use the following format. Davies, D.
Michael Pollan offers president food for thought [Interview transcript]. Electronic books may include books available as text files online or audiobooks.
www.adssafaris.com/cli/satire/square-foot-gardening-how-to-grow-healthy.php If an electronic book is easily available in print, cite it as you would a print source. If it is unavailable in print or extremely difficult to find , use the format in the example.
Use the words Available from in your citation if the book must be purchased or is not available directly. Chisholm, L. Celtic tales. These are treated similarly to their print counterparts with the addition of retrieval information. Include the chapter or section number in parentheses after the book title. Hart, A. Restoratives—Coffee, cocoa, chocolate. In Diet in sickness and in health VI. Provide the author, date of publication, title, and retrieval information.
If the work is numbered within the database, include the number in parentheses at the end of the citation. For commonly used office software and programming languages, it is not necessary to provide a citation. Cite software only when you are using a specialized program, such as the nutrition tracking software in the following example. If you download software from a website, provide the version and the year if available.
Internet Brands, Inc. Citation guidelines for these sources are similar to those used for discussion forum postings.
Briefly describe the type of source in brackets after the title. Because the content may not be carefully reviewed for accuracy, discussion forums and blogs should not be relied upon as a major source of information. However, it may be appropriate to cite these sources for some types of research.
You may also participate in discussion forums or comment on blogs that address topics of personal or professional interest. Always keep in mind that when you post, you are making your thoughts public—and in many cases, available through search engines. Make sure any posts that can easily be associated with your name are appropriately professional, because a potential employer could view them.
Include the name of the producer or executive producer; the date, title, and type of broadcast; and the associated company and location. West, Ty. Executive producer. PBS special report: Health care reform [Television broadcast]. Include the producer and the type of series if you are citing an entire television or radio series. Couture, D.
The Diane Rehm show [Radio series]. To cite a specific episode of a radio or television series, list the name of the writer or writers if available , the date the episode aired, its title, and the type of series, along with general information about the series. Bernanke, J. Hummingbirds: Magic in the air [Television series episode]. Kaufman Executive producer , Nature. Name the director or producer or both , year of release, title, country of origin, and studio.
Spurlock, M. Super size me. Name the primary contributors and list their role. Include the recording medium in brackets after the title. Then list the location and the label.
Smith, L. Meditation and relaxation [CD]. Chopin piano concertos no. Hong Kong: Naxos. Provide as much information as possible about the writer, director, and producer; the date the podcast aired; its title; any organization or series with which it is associated; and where you retrieved the podcast. Kelsey, A. Writer , Garcia, J. Lies food labels tell us.