T auxier , L. T ersis , N. T rimingham , J. T ymowski , M.
V ernet , R. V ernet, R. V ydrine , V. Petersburg, Dimitry Bulanin Publishing House. W ilks , I.
G oody ed. W olffe , J. P arsons ed. Interview n. Interviews n. At interviews n.
It is pronounced like the indistinct vowel sound in the second syllable of the English words common and comma. On this see P. M itchell , , p. In other words, the similarities between the tales do not result from parallel, independent borrowings from universal schemes by Tuareg story-tellers, Songhay oral traditionists, and the Timbuktu chronicler. However, for a different view, see D.
C asajus , , p. D upuy , ; M. A ghali -Z akara , J. Work has also been done on Arabic medieval inscriptions P. On the contributions by archaeologists, see also R. V ernet , ; and his paper in this Dossier of Afriques R.
V ernet , J. M aley , N ixon , and his paper in this Dossier of Afriques S. N ixon , ; S. N ixon et alii , a; S.
N ixon et alii , b. C uoq , , p. H opkins , N. L evtzion , , p. L aw , ; D. L iverani , a; M. L iverani , b; M. L iverani ed. M attingly ed. M attingly et alii eds , Following the recent events in Libya, the fieldwork of the Italo—Libyan and Anglo—Libyan missions has been suspended until security is fully restored in the country. M c I ntosh , , p. See also the remarks on the subject by S. M agnavita , , p. M agnavita , , and her paper in this Dossier of Afriques S. M agnavita , ; S.
M agnavita et alii , ; and P. R obertshaw et alii , , p. The Kissi area is in the Gurma region. H unwick , p. H orton , , p. M agnavita et alii , a, p. M agnavita et alii , b. See also T. I nsoll , , p. A razi , , p. On earlier work at Marandet, see D.
F enn et alii , , p. Shaw, b. G ado , ; B.
G ado , H unwick , , p. It was also an important source of grain N.
At present I am trying to secure my release from the Nigerian Government — for the duration only — and permission to enlist in other than the local forces. Crossing a river 28 4. In addition, gold has been mined elsewhere in the region from dates still to be precisely determined. There were 33 registered political parties as of early The Head of the District to which I went is actually a grandson of the founder of the Sokoto dynasty, Usuman dan Fodiyo, who died in , won his battles at the time that Napoleon won his, and must have been alive when George II was on the throne of England. They confirmed the PDP as Nigeria's largest political party.
L aurent , ; P. L ovejoy , , p. M agnavita , personal communication. Susan K. McIntosh, personal communication. This project is now on hold owing to the situation in Gao. McIntosh, personal communication, On this kind of looting at Saney, see T. I nsoll , M auny , ; ; ; , p. F light , a; b; ; ; T. I nsoll , ; ; ; ; T. Large-scale excavations with rigorous stratigraphic control at these sites will help us to have a better understanding about the origin and the development of the Gao kingdom.
Additionally, an expanded program of chemical analysis of trade goods from these sites will provide a robust comparative database for reconstructing trade connections with source areas and other trading centers. H aour et alii , ; O. H aour , personal communication; see also A.
H aour , R ouch , , p. Old Busa was never systematically excavated and is now at the bottom of the Nigerian artificial lake created by the Kainji Dam. Its inhabitants moved to a new town also called Busa New Busa. B reternitz , ; B. B reternitz , ; T.
S haw , a, p. H artle , ; D. H artle , ; A. P riddy , a; A. P riddy , b. L hote , , p. M auny , , p.
On the difficulties faced over the centuries by overland caravans in West Africa, see also C. L efebvre , , p.